• Lifetime prevalence is about 1%, and affects both genders equally.

  • Men present early than women. Men ~ 20 :: Women ~ 30.

  • Rarely presents before age 15 or after age 45.

Notable Features:

  • Winter births are associated with higher rates of schizophrenia. This has been theorized to be due to increased risk of environmental stressors like cold weather, nutritional deficiencies, and exposure to infectious agents.

  • Hypofrontality on neuroimaging

High Yield:

  • The dopamine hypothesis suggests that dysfunction or alterations in the dopaminergic pathways in the brain may be the cause of schizophrenia.

  • Downward drift hypothesis


  • Besides dopamine, other neurotransmitters that are implicated include: serotonin, histamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glutamate.

  • Research interest into the role of glutamate (and the NMDA receptors it binds to) is rooted in the observation that the NMDAR is blocked by phencyclidine (known as "PCP" or "angel dust"), which produces a clinical syndrome similar to schizophrenia.


A psychiatric disorder characterized by a constellation of abnormalities in thinking, emotion, and behavior.