Substance Use & Related Disorders

Overview


Definition


Types

  • Depressants

    • Alcohol abuse

    • Opioid abuse

  • Stimulants

    • Cocaine abuse

    • Methamphetamines

    • "Bath salts" (synthetic amphetamine analogs)

  • Hallucinogens

    • PCP

    • LSD

  • Other

    • Marijuana (cannabis)

Distinctions

Drug Intoxication

Some clinical features of drug intoxication are more specific to a given substance:

  • PCP:

    • Violent behavior

    • Dissociation

    • Hallucinations

    • Amnesia

    • Ataxia

    • Nystagmus (horizontal or vertical)

  • LSD

    • Euphoria

    • Dysphoria/panic

    • Tachycardia/hypertension

    • Visual hallucinations

  • Cocaine

    • Euphoria

    • Agitation/psychosis

    • Tachycardia/hypertension

    • Diaphoresis

    • Chest pain

    • Seizures

    • Mydriasis

  • Methamphetamine

    • Violent behavior

    • Psychosis

    • Diaphoresis

    • Tachycardia/hypertension

    • Mydriasis

    • Choreiform movements

    • Tooth decay ("meth mouth")

  • Marijuana (THC, cannabis)

    • Euphoria

    • Dysphoria/panic

    • Slow reflexes, impaired time perception

    • Increased appetite

    • Dry mouth

    • Conjunctival injection

  • Opioids like heroin

    • Euphoria

    • Constipation

    • Depressed mental state (CNS depression)

    • Respiratory depression

    • Miosis

Opioid intoxication is characterized by the triad:

  • CNS depression

  • Respiratory depression

  • Miosis ("pinpoint pupils")

Drug Withdrawal

Opioid withdrawal is characterized by:

  • Lacrimation

  • Mydriasis

  • Yawning

  • Diaphoresis

  • GI symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

Diagnostics


Resources